Slit Scan Test 003: Video

For this experiment, I filmed the Mr. Roboto slowly rotating 360°on a fan and applied 5 different scanning options to the original footage. Surprisingly, the fan made stable rotation come true and  I was able to achieve less wavy images than my first experiment.

>Clip. 1  Original
>Clip. 2  Center slitscan, traveling down to up (2-pixel each frame)
>Clip. 3  Center slitscan, traveling right to left  (2-pixel each frame)
>Clip. 4  Cadence  slitscan, traveling left to right (2-pixel each frame)
>Clip. 5  Cadence  slitscan, traveling right to left  (2-pixel each frame)
>Clip. 6  Cadence slitscan , traveling down to up (2-pixel each frame)

My next step is to produce creative motion pictures using the similar method and also try out  the Processing program for interactive slit-scanning.


Slitscan Test 003

Yuri Endo 2012

Extracts from my third experiment;

>img. 1  Mr. Roboto and the fan used 
>img. 2  Original
>img. 3  Center slitscan, traveling down to up (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 4  Center slitscan, traveling right to left  (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 5  Cadence  slitscan, traveling left to right (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 6  Cadence  slitscan, traveling right to left  (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 7  Cadence slitscan , traveling down to up (2-pixel each frame)

Slitscan Test 002

Yuri Endo 2012

Above images are the extracts from my second experiments;

>img. 1  Center slitscan, traveling up to down (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 2  Center slitscan, traveling right to left (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 3  Original image used for img. 1-2

>img. 4  Center slitscan, traveling down to up (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 5  Center slitscan, traveling left to right (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 6  Original image used for img. 4-5


Slitscan Test 001: Video

I filmed the wooden artist's model slowly rotating 360°on a tripod then import the movie into After Effects for post-processing as I noted on my previous post. Following Mr.Visnic's precise instruction, I scaled down my full HD 1080p footage to 720p, in order to reduce render time.

This  1280X720 composition is consist of  360 layers each with a 2 pixel hight mask. The top of each frame is 15 second earlier than the bottom of each frame. As seen in the video, the time and motion in is represented in the image vertically. Alas, I couldn't achieve the clean effect this time due to the fact that I failed to rotate the tripod smoothly. Additionally, I also tried to process the same video using 720 layers with a 1 pixel high mask which did succeed in creating greater distortion as observed in 3 images from my previous post, however, due to the layer amount and rendering time, my computer refused to finish up the entire footage.  


Slitscan Test 001

Yuri Endo 2012

For this first slitscan experiment, I initially decided to create slitscan images without relying on automated process that are available, such as an After Effects plugin (Time Displacement), ImageMagik, Slit-scan Movie Maker and Slit-scan Camera for Iphone. During my first trial, I took 360 pictures of a wooden artist's model rotating 360° on a tripod, then load all the images to Photoshop as one document so I could select a 1pixel high low with Single Row Marquee Tool, mask it, create a mask for the next image down then offset the mask vertically by 1 pixel, which means, in order for me to complete one image, I had to apply the same process to each 360 photo. It goes without saying, I gave up on it by the time I reached around its 30th image.

In short, many other trials and errors after, thanks to Mr.  Charlie Visnic, I finally succeeded in processing my first slitscan images with After Effects (without using the plugin). Although it does not necessarily mean that I managed to take the high way by my own, it definitely helped me understanding the mechanism of slitscan.

Above images are the extracts from two different experiments I tried out following Mr. Visnic's instructions;

>img. 1-2  The Wooden Artist's model and tripod used
>img. 3-11 Center slitscan, traveling right to left (2-pixel each frame)
>img. 12-34 Candence slitscan, traveling up to down (2-pixel each frame)
>img.  35-37 Candence slitscan, traveling up to down (1-pixel each frame) 


The Basics of Slitscan Technique

Artist-photographer Adam Magyar  in front of his slitscan photograph installation 

The slit-scan photography technique is a photographic and cinematographic process based upon the camera's relative movement in relation to a light source.  By combining camera's long exposure time and a moveable slide with a slit-shaped aperture set directly in front of the camera, a certain part of the subject seen through the slit is being exposed at one time and the camera captures it as a single photograph.  As the slit travels across the camera, the step is repeated for each frame and produces a consecutive light trail from the first to the last frame of the image. In other words, the entire process captures an image revealing the trail of subject's time-based movements in deformed fashion.  

This technique was traditionally used in static photography with standard film photography camera and was perfected for the creation of spectacular animation and became widely used for motion pictures. In today's digital realm, a chain of image slices are extracted from a sequence of video frames, and combined into an image sequence.

It goes probably without even mentioning, one of the most prominent adaptations of this technique can be seen in the "Stargate" sequence in Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey which was created by Yoda of modern special effects,  Douglas Trumbull .

Reference: Underview on 2001: Slitscan2001 A Space Odyssey: Unwrapping the Slit Scan sequences, Slit Scan and Strip Photography Overview,  Adam Magyar’s Slit-Scan Camera


Conceptual Project Plan

While I keep making notes on the theoretical research, I plan to proceed on next  stage where I will be working on five conceptual projects utilizing the classic visual art techniques. In that sense, my prime mission here is to firstly acquire the theoretic and hands-on comprehension for each technique, then secondly to develop them into advanced art form. 


Yuri Endo 2009-2012


Illuminating Bathroom Possibilities

In connection with my thesis project, I will be also documenting the process and developments of a product design course, conducted by Professor Andrea Dichiara, which aims to explore the world of interior design and technology to develop a contemporary bathroom products and ambience within. Through this project, I plan to explore the possibilities of light installation for a bathroom space with its vast emphasis on digital lighting solution to gain in-depth knowledge in architectural lighting design. 


Light and Skin Interactions

Yukuko Tanaka (田中宥久子) is a Japanese beautician turned entrepreneur who became well known for her inventive facial massage techniques and make-up products in which she puts importance on revitalizing the way skin reflects light for fine glow.

Similar to a quality diamond doesn't sparkle without light, human skin doesn't appear any better without the presence of a moderate lighting effect, so as Tanaka say, newborn skin look significantly flesher and clearer because its smooth surface reflects lights more than that of adult's.

In that sense, Tanaka's  Zogan Massage ( "Face Making" massage) demonstrated in the video above,  is an epoch‐making practice that said to help removing facial muscle rigidity and improving skin firmness and luster by performing lymphatic drainage massage.  About 5 years ago, I visited one of her studios with my mother and sister for a try-out. The massage performed by one of her apprentices was rather painful at first, gradually put us into the states of relaxation. We kept on proceeding this massage for a few days and as a result, the face swilling, which apparently caused by daily stress and aging, went down and moreover make-up started to sit well. However though, the massage cream that they suggested to use was extremely rich for my sister and I, which ended up causing us horrible acne. Although we immediately had to stop this massage,  my mother continued it until this day and she does look younger than her actual age, 57. (Probably, it's high time that I went back to this regimen. ) 

Tanaka's signature foundation produced under SUQQU which consists of 6 colors (light blue, light purple, yellow, pink, coral and white) is another innovative product that has been keeping its  best-selleing position in Japan for quite some time. According to the study, white radiates human skin all day long. Coral, yellow and pink radiate when skin receives bright day light. Blue and purple radiate more under twilight. Therefore,  by mixing all effective colors would give skin more healthy glow under any conditions. In addition, Tanaka suggests the use of white and beige blended concealer for treating dark eye circles and blemishes. 

She also applies the white LED lighting system by Color Kinetics for the mirrors she uses at her studio which enables to control color temperature when treating customers.

Reference: 光を彩る、色が輝く: LEDと創造力が出会うとき YMethod


Modern Straight Photography

Naoya Hatakeyama (畠山直哉) is a Japanese photographer who focuses on portraying quandary and essence of contemporary cityscape, mainly through landscape and architectural photography. Hatakeyama says;  light is a medium that conveys object to presence.  In the world of photography, light works as a basic element that support capturing the image rather than an exceptional illumination gives out sparkles.  Below image is from his Slow Glass Series which was inspired by Bob Shaw's short story, Light of Other Days

Naoya Hatakeyama, Slow Glass (# 063) 2001  

I especially enjoy his naturalistic world highlighted by unique presence of light, often captured by natural light with additional artificial light sources, which makes each photography appear as if it were installation art. I personally feel as though his creative approach, especially seen in Ciel Tombé and Maquettes/Light, inherits some percepts to straight photography, yet it takes viewers to a brand new visual trip. 

When LED Meets Creativity

Upon reviewing a variety of publications and online resources in relation to light, I found this particular Japanese title,  光を彩る、色が輝く: LEDと創造力が出会うとき ( roughly translated as "Color Lighting and Radiance of Color: When LED Meets Creativity") especially uplifting.

Yuri Endo 2012

As we enter the 21st century along with rapid advance in technology, the used of LED (Light-emitting diode) light has become more persistent and diverse.Unlike other conventional light sources such as Incandescent and  Fluorescent lights, LED has higher compatibility with technology which allows us for its advanced use; color lighting and digital lighting.

Along with exploring the creativity filtered through this relatively new lighting form, the book introduces advanced practices and perspectives of Japanese professionals from various occupational fields, from photographer, architect, make-up artist, wedding planner, interaction artist to lighting designer, on which I plan to take some notes over the course of next several posts.


Light Therapy

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a type of depression usually triggered by lack of light in winter. In Sweden, where winter gloom is extremely long, approximately 20% of its population (almost 2 million people) are said to be SAD sufferers.

The sensation I get from Ingmar Bergman movies would be comparable to that of winter blue?

Some say the most effective clinically proven remedy for SAD is light therapy as studies have seen the benefits to 80-85 % of cases.  More precisely, by sitting in front of specially designed illumination with UV-free lighting to the strength at minimum of 2,500 lux (a lux is a unit of illuminance. The average domestic or office light emits  200-500 lux and a clear summer day can reach  an intensity of 100,000 lux.)  for designated time and period each day, evidently alleviates the symptoms of SAD such as depression, anxiety, oversleeping, loss of energy, appetite gain (especially a craving for foods high in carbohydrates), weight gain and attention deficits.    

A short reportage by AFP, Beating Winter Blues: Light Therapy in Swedenfeatures an light café in Sweden where costumers undergo an hour of light therapy before they go off to work. 


Circadian Rhythms and Light

A circadian rhythm is roughly 24 hour cycle in the biological process which can be observed in living beings, including plants, animals, fungi and cyanobacteria. This cycle provides time of day and time of year information to the brain and body which can be modulated on a daily basis by external cues such as sunlight and temperature to prevail light and dark cycle.

Yuri Endo 2012
Scientific evidence suggests that disturbance in the circadian system (the melatonin cycle) may result in poor sleep quality, low productivity, seasonal depression, and immune deficiencies. Among many others, jet lag and bipolar disorder  are also believed to be the repercussions of circadian rhythm disturbance. 

Studies have also shown that light has a direct effect on human performance and well-being on account of the way it influences the circadian rhythms, especially the body's release of melatonin, a hormone that helps regulate our sleep cycle. In that sense, it is said that  the use of melatonin help entrain the circadian clock to environmental cycles. In the USA, melatonin tablets are sold as dietary supplement which are available at convenience stores without prescription. Whereas in many other countries, it is available only on prescription or not at all.  Above image shows the bottle of melatonin tablets that I take as a jet lag cure or simply when I have trouble sleeping at night. (As I felt mild hallucinogetic sensation, to say the least, rather than drowsiness from 5mm tablets, I am currently on  3mm and have not yet to try out 1mm.) 


A short documentary, Concise History of The Origins of Cinemaexplores the world of light and optic illusion, from the persistence of vision theory to the beginning of the talkie in such compact and tasteful manners. Its sequel , Louis Le Prince, was rather too concise yet also informative which features the achievement and mysterious disappearance of one of the pioneers of cinema, Louis Le Prince, who wasn't covered in the previous movie.

Reference: Brief Cinema History 


x_sound: John Cage, Nam June Paik and After

Yuri Endo 2012  * TV Garden by Nam June Paik displayed at the exhibition   
Commemorating the 80th anniversary of Nam June Paik’s birth and the 100th anniversary of John Cage’s birth, x_sound: John Cage, Nam June Paik and After at NJP Art Center showcases the works of Cage and Paik along with the sound/installation artists applying similar principles to their artistic expressions; Backfade 5 (Dancing Queen) by Haroon Mirza and 302 Prepared DC Motors by Zimoun were particularly inspiring.

Eat the Sun

Another engaging film referral from Professor Hall, Eat the Sun, focuses on Mason Dwinell's journey into the world of Sungazing, an ancient practice of looking directly at the sun for long periods of time as a source of biological and spiritual nourishment.

According to HRM, Mason's indian sungazing instructor, one's goal is to reach 44 minutes of looking directly at the sun, which could take 9 to 12 months to achieve. In the process, one would be cured all mental and physical aliments and consequently would be able to subsisted solely on solar energy and water without the desire or need to eat food. Many also claim that it also results in better eye vision and more vibrant and productive life. 

Unsurprisingly, there is neither a scientific proof nor biochemical possibility to support this practice. As a result, many sungazers including the protagonist himself had damaged their eyes in the process. Despite this fact and even after the guru, HRM, himself admitted that he eats when his body compels him, apparently avid followers still exist (or might be expanding its numbers as organizations) all over the world. 

After having experienced the horror of The Sarin Attack on the Tokyo Subway, and also surviving the notorious teenage battlefields in Japan, the mare thought of belonging in a group, either spiritually or socially, already makes me skeptical to begin with, unlike the individuals introduced in the film, I never had the urge  to seek some form of salvation through ritual activity or spiritual knowledge. In that sense, this film was an intriguing reference for recognizing one particular brief from "the other side,"  and its connection with Sun as energy which they believe as a component one can physically collect and consume for nourishment. 

Last but not least, I cannot help but wonder if this practice had any measurable effects on human circadian rhythms which believed to be directly connected with daylight and our performance/well-being. ( Not in the sense that Sugazers clam but as a scientific fact.) On that note, I would expand this notes to further research on this particular biological process. 


Personal History in Lighting:Part Seven

In collaboration with Professor David Hall and Elena Marchenko, this installation, which focuses on   the experimentation with Kinect for XBOX 380 by Microsoft to discover new approaches to public installation with the emphasis on our cinematic expressions, was completed during an interaction design course as a part of the Green Growth Research Project founded by the South Korean Government. 

Elena Marchenko + Yuri Endo + David Hall 2011

While many of Kinect experimentations are largely focused on the user experience; human behavior when they constrained by technology and how it influence their life and social interaction, we focused on the aesthetics of the actual hyperreal visions that can be captured from Kinect's infrared camera to explore new possibilities in the motion pictures and video installation art. Though this  installation piece  had been completed and exhibited under said research project, it could be further developed in relation to light and optics as an independent assignment.

Personal History in Lighting: Part Six

I created a mini photo studio in my tiny studio apartment for a photoshoot  featuring the three-way computer container, ZZZ, which I created during a product design course.

Yuri Endo 2011

By utilizing available sources; a DSLR, long fluorescent light tube, handmade paper dimmer and white paper-faced foam board as a light reflector, I managed to shoot a series of images that introduce the development process and the bag functions. As I was still a beginner in RAW processing, I may have not taken full advantage of some prominent functions of Camera Raw, notably, noise reduction and white balance control. 

Personal History in Lighting: Part Five

This projection mapping piece which I consider as my first light installation,  was completed during a digital media design course. 2 animation sequences, created with photoshop, illustrator and after effects, are mapped to two 3D models, created with Autodesk Maya, and projected onto the actual objects that I made the 3D models from. 

Yuri Endo 2011

Although the chosen objects had relatively simple shapes and supposed to be easy to map, I failed to tweak the 3D models in precise measurement and that caused some light-leaks as well as image distortion. In addition, the colors appeared to be somehow faded out over the process of importing the original animation to Autodesk Maya which unfortunately I also couldn't manage to restore even with manipulating the color contrast options in the projector.   

Personal History in Lighting: Part Four

These five sets of LED bedroom lights, The Moody Clan, were completed over the course of a production design course at my first year of design studies.  

Yuri Endo 2010

Each set is constructed with a 10cm x 10cm acrylic square box with a sheet of flexible light strips with 3 LED inside and accompanied by a sheet of interchangeable colored polycarbonate filter (Red, Yellow, Orange, Green and Blue).

Yuri Endo 2011

As seen in the stop-motion video above, the colored filters supposed to enable users applying various ambient effects to their bedrooms depending on their mood. Nonetheless, having been using the final products myself, I realized that both acrylic box and the filters needed to be either sandblasted or their color density should be adjusted lower in order to function as I initially designed. Consequently, when a color filter is inserted, I can barely see things around ( especially blue and green) or lights up the room as if it were the infamous red light district ( red, yellow and orange). On the other hand, when used without any filters, it does serve as a bedroom light yet does not create a favorable ambience that I hoped to create. Additionally, the quality of the polycarbonate filters needs to be higher as they currently get scratched easily. 

Personal History in Lighting: Part Three

The second short film, About a Gummy Bear, was shot on 35 color film as a cinematography exercise at a film school in Prague. 

Yuri Endo 2005

For this project, with the help from my fellow classmates, I managed to multitask the principle roles except for acting and camera operation as I was not able to hold the camera which weigh over 15 kg for more than 10 minutes. During the process,  I learned how I should not multitask in the film production, however, more importantly significance of lighting in cinema and the playfulness of light and color. 

Yuri Endo + Elise Toledo + Eva Hausberger  2005

As seen in those production photos,  I used several types of color gels and studio lights for both indoor and outdoor shooting to create a surrealistic mise-en-scène where the colors were highly exaggerated.  Although as a film it was rather a flop, the whole experience worked as my benefit understanding the light and color relationship as well as the versatile visual effects that could be created by it. 


Personal History in Lighting: Part Two

Upon completion of my undergraduate studies, I attended two film courses at two different institutions in order to set my foot in the film industry. 

Yuri Endo 2004

This short film, Fascinado pela Capoeira, is the first short film that I made with a professional film camera. It was shot on 16mm black & white reversal film and features New York based professional Capoeiristas to explore the world of Capoeira, an afro-Brazilian art form that combines elements of martial arts, games, music, and dance. 

While the outdoor sequences were shot entirely with natural light, I used one large studio light (without  any filters or dimmers) for the indoor sequences in hopes of achieving  a highly theatrical  mise-en-scène. Thinking back, especially upon receiving unexpectedly good responses at the final screening, I was certain that I succeed in creating a very dramatic montage by taking advantage of available light sources and this experience drove me to extend my film studies further to the world of cinematography. (Nonetheless when I watched the film for the first time in over five years, I couldn't help but noticing how limited knowledge and experiences in the use of lights I had back then.)

Personal History in Lighting: Part One

In this second section of the STAGE ONE, while I simultaneously try out additional experiments and in-depth researches, I would like to take a moment to review and analyze my own experiences in lighting to add further thoughts to my new project ideas.

A long story short, my interest in lights probably dates back to the first year of my undergraduate studies when I enrolled in a basic photography course. 

Yuri Endo 2000-2008

On the first day of this photography course, I neither had an idea of how to maneuver the camera with no auto focus function, nor compositing subjects in shots. Though all images that I took at this stage of my life was under natural light, by running around the city day and night with the SLR and living in the school  darkroom for  three consecutive months, I came to understand the basic mechanism of camera overall,  the glee of manipulating the relationship between lights and optics. 


Diffraction of Light


Yuri Endo 2012 

While a narrow light beam is aimed at single slit, the light goes through one slit and hits the screen and creates a single light streak, when the light is aimed at two slits, the light goes through two slits and the light on the screen spreads out into many blobs of light (the size of the blobs becomes wider towards the sides.) in other words, two light waves overwraps to create an interference pattern.

Reference: Dr. Quantum -Double Slit Experiment Young's Two-slit Experiments 


Light Fantastic

Upon referral from Professor David Hall, I just had a Light Fantastic marathon.

This four-part television documentary series by BBC concisely explored the phenomenon of light from several points of view, from the historical events to renowned science and physics discoveries and helped me further understanding the experiments I have done so far. I particularly  enjoyed;

>The in-depth story of Alhazen's theory covered during the first episode, Let There be Light.
>The third episode, The Stuff of Light, which unfolds the subsequent development of the modern technology in relation to the discovery of light's nature.
>The fourth episode, Light, The Universe and Everything, which features the color vision mechanism. 


Reflection of Light

Reflections happen when light hits surface of a medium (incident ray), and bounces back (reflected rays). In other words, reflected waves are neither transmitted nor absorbed but are reflected from the surface.


Yuri Endo 2012

When the light hits mirror, the light reflects back in different direction at the same angle as the incident ray. ( The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection

The amount of light that is reflected from a surface depends on the nature of the surface and the angle at which the light strikes the surface. 


Yuri Endo 2012

Total internal reflection occurs when the light is passing through a medium with higher refractive index to lower refractive index at the angle of incidence greater than the so-called critical angle.

For any angle of incidence larger than the critical angle, Snell's law does not apply for the angle of refraction. In that case, obeying the law of reflection, the light stops crossing the boundary surface and completely reflects back internally.

In this experiment using a semi-circular glass, the light is passing from the glass ( higher refractive index ) to air ( lower refractive index ). When the light is pointing towards the center of the flat face at certain angle ( the angle of incidence above the critical angle), it hits the curved surface but does not  refract at the boundary. This optical phenomenon would not occur when the light is passing from air  ( lower refractive index ) to the glass ( higher refractive index ).

Optical fibers and prismatic binoculars take advantages of this physical property. This is also what makes diamonds sparkle brighter than the rest ( Diamonds have unusually high reflective index).

Reference: Video: Law of Reflection


Refraction of Light


Yuri Endo 2012

When a light wave passes from one medium (material) into another with a different density, more precisely, only when there is a difference in the index of refraction between the two media, the wave changes its direction. This change of direction as the wave enters to the second medium is called refraction. In this case, the light changes its direction as it passes from air into glass then back to the air. 


Yuri Endo 2012

>img. 1: A spoon in an empty glass
>img. 2: img. 1 filled with water 

When the glass is filled with water, the spoon appears to be bent through the side of the glass. 

When light passes from a medium of higher density to lower, it bends off the normal (the perpendicular to the surface it strikes) and when it passes from medium of lower density into higher it bends to the normal. In this case, as the light passes from the glass to water, the light slows down and changes its direction and as the light leaves the glass, it picks up its speed again. As a result,  the spoon look as though it is bent since light travels slower through water than through air. 

Yuri Endo 2012

>img. 1: An empty bowl with a coin
>img. 2: img. 1 filled with water
>img. 3: img. 1 filled with corn oil

When the bowl is empty the edge of the bowl prevent us from seeing the coin inside fully. Whereas, when the bowl is filled with water, the light bends over the edge of the bowl and the part of the coin becomes more visible.

The coin appears to be more visible in the oil as compared the water because oil has a higher index of refraction than water or air. In other words, a medium that has higher index of refraction bends light more than another (ex. diamonds).   

This effects of refraction are also responsible for the mirages observed on a hot, sandy desert and the bottom of a pool looking closer to the surface than they actually are.

Reference: Snell's Law , Snell's Law video, Refraction of LightPhysics Aplet: Refraction of Light 


Color of Light

In order to recognize any perceptions of color, light is necessary. A green leaf appears green because the light reflects green light and all other colors are absorbed into this specific leaf.

While, white light from the sun contains all the possible color variations, human eyes are only capable of responding to certain colors and wavelength.  The ability of processing color is owing to our eye's light and color-sensitive receptors, rods and cones, and the color vision may vary between individuals as well as  species.


Yuri Endo 2012

When the red light ( from a red dot laser pointer) passes through the red gummy bears, it exits on the other side, yet when the red light is pointed at the green gummy bears, the light does not pass through.

When the white light ( from a LED light) passes through the red gummy bears, it makes them appear red . At this point,  all the colors in the visible light spectrum is absorbed except for the red. The same results can be observed from the green gummy bears, yellow and orange gummy worms. 


Yuri Endo 2012

When the narrow beam of white light passes through a glass prism, the white light is spread up into the colors of visible light spectrum which is in the same color and order as does in the rainbow; red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet, respectively. In other words, white light is the mixture of the colors that prism separates out.

Each color has a different wave length and bend in different amount. For example, violet has the shortest wavelength and bends the most while red has the longest wavelength and bends the least.

Reference: Newton and the Color SpectrumVideo: Visible Light Spectrum, Newton's Prism Experiment


Yuri Endo 2012

>img. 1:  LED lights (with Red, Green and Blue filters) used for the experimentation
>img. 2:  RGB color addition
>img. 3:  Red
>img. 4:  Green 
>img. 5:  Blue 
>img. 6:  Red + Green = Yellow
>img. 7:  Red + Blue = Magenta  
>img. 8:  Green + Blue = Cyan
>img. 9:  Red + Green + Blue = White
>img. 10: img. 9 with an object 

Filament of the back of the light emits all the colors in the spectrum (white light).  As also seen in the previous Gummy Bear experiments, when the red filter is placed in front, only red passes through the filer absorbing the other colors and appears to give out red light. Green and blue filters react in the same exact manner. 

Red, green and blue are primary colors of light. Overwrapping the three makes white light. On the other hand, combining a pair of primary colors gives the secondary colors; yellow, magenta and cyan. For example, adding red and green makes yellow, red and blue makes magenta and green and blue makes cyan.  

As seen in the img. 10, when the object is placed in front of white light, it casts yellow, magenta and cyan shadows.  

Reference: Video: Color Addition 


Light and Optics Experiments

In order to review the principle of light, I have decided to explore the world of science and physics more by trying out various basic light and optics experiments. Through this experimentation, I'm hoping to achieve a rational understanding of history, nature and properties of light which would support me acquiring my pilot project ideas. On that note, I plan to set out the first section of STAGE ONE as classified in following categories; 

> Color
> Refraction
> Reflection
> Diffraction